Memocracy

Memocracy

The Challenge of Populist Memory Politics for Europe: Towards Effective Responses to Militant Legislation on the Past

Team

Table of contents

Principal investigators

Prof. Angelika Nußberger

Angelika Nußberger is a professor at Cologne University teaching international law and comparative constitutional law. From 2011 until 2019 she was Judge at the European Court of Human Rights elected on behalf of Germany, for three years between 2017 and 2019 its Vice-President. She is the German member of the Venice Commission and since 2021 its Vice-President, International Judge at the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the German constitutional law professors’ association. 

In her research she has been concentrating on the influence of European human rights jurisprudence on constitutional law, especially in Eastern Europe, on the contextuality of constitutional law, dialogue between courts and the questions of rule-of-law in international law. 

Dr. Uladzislau Belavusau

Dr. Uladzislau Belavusau is a Senior Researcher in European law at the T.M.C. Asser Institute – University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and currently leads the Dutch team of the MEMOCRACY project (2021-2024). Previously he was an Assistant Professor of EU law and human rights at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (2011-2015) and a Principal Investigator for the MELA project (2016-2019). He holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Florence, Italy) and an LLM from the Collège d’Europe (Bruges, Belgium). Dr Belavusau has held numerous visiting research fellowships, including at the University of California (Berkeley, USA), Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg, Germany), York University (Toronto, Canada), Tel Aviv University (Israel) and Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy). Likewise, he has guest-lectured at the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland), Masaryk University (Czech Republic), York University (Canada), IDC University Herzliya (Israel) and LUISS Guido Carli University in Rome (Italy) as well as several other institutions in and outside the Netherlands. He is the author of two monographs Governance of Sexual Rights in European Law (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming in 2023) and Freedom of Speech (Routledge, 2013), and co-editor of three books Constitutionalism Under Stress (Oxford University Press, 2020), EU Anti-Discrimination Law (Hart-Bloomsbury, 2018) and  Law and Memory (Cambridge University Press, 2017). His research and teaching cover various areas of EU (especially constitutional and anti-discrimination) law, comparative constitutional law, human rights and memory politics.

Dr. Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias

Dr. Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias is MEMOCRACY Principal Investigator in the Polish team. She is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and an expert in the fields of anti-discrimination law, freedom of speech, and memory laws. She is co-editor and co-author of Law and Memory: Towards Legal Governance of History (CUP, 2017) and Constitutionalism under Stress (OUP, 2020). She was Bohdan Winiarski Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre of the University of Cambridge and a Graduate Fellow at the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism, Yale University. Between 2016 and 2019 she was a Principal Investigator in the Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspective(MELA), an international research consortium sponsored by the Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA). Apart from her academic work, Dr. Gliszczyńska-Grabias is a co-head of the Public Interest Strategic Litigation Program at one of the global law firms.

Dr. Maria Mälksoo

Dr. Maria Mälksoo is MEMOCRACY Principal Investigator in the University of Copenhagen team. She is Professor of International Relations at the Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen. Her research foci are in memory politics and critical security studies. Dr. Mälksoo is the author of The Politics of Becoming European: A Study of Polish and Baltic Post-Cold War Security Imaginaries (Routledge, 2010); a co-author of Remembering Katyn (Polity, 2012); an editor of the JIRD Special Issue “Uses of ‘the East’ in International Studies: provincializing IR from Central and Eastern Europe” (2021) and the Handbook on the Politics of Memory (Edward Elgar, 2023) (see here for further publications). She has been a visiting research fellow at the Centre of International Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science (2015), and Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies (2012).

Maria Mälksoo received her Ph.D. in International Studies from the University of Cambridge (2008) and has previously worked at the University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies (2016-2021); the University of Tartu, Estonia (2010-2016); International Centre for Defence and Security, Tallinn (2007-2010); the Estonian Ministry of Defence, and the Office of the President of Estonia. Dr. Mälksoo was the Executive Secretary of the European International Studies Association (EISA) in 2018-2021, and served as the President of the Central and East European International Studies Association (CEEISA) (2019-2022). She is the incoming Associate Editor of the Review of International Studies, and an editorial board member of the European Journal of International Relations, Global Studies Quarterly and International Political Anthropology.

Postdoctoral researchers

Dr. Grażyna Baranowska

Dr. Grażyna Baranowska, MEMOCRACY post-doc in the Polish team, is a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Postdoctoral fellow at the Hertie School in Berlin (2021-2024), as well as an assistant professor at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences (since 2016). Previously, she was a PostDoctoral researcher in the EU-funded consortium “MELA. Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives” (2016-2019), as well as a policy advisor in a project on enforced disappearances at the German Institute for Human Rights (2019-2020). Her book “Rights of Families of Disappeared Persons” was published by Intersentia in 2021.

Dr. Patryk I. Labuda

Patryk I. Labuda (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Legal Studies) is a researcher in the Polish MEMOCRACY team. He was previously an Assistant Professor of (International) Criminal Law at the University of Amsterdam and a Swiss National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the New York University School of Law, the Fletcher School of Law of Diplomacy, and the University of Zurich. Patryk holds a PhD from the Geneva Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.

Patryk has 14 years of work and research experience in Africa, with a regional focus on the law, politics and history of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan and South Sudan. His current research focuses on global governance and relations between the ‘Global South’ and ‘Global East’, in particular Eastern Europe and Africa, in the wake of the 2022 invasion of Ukraine.

Patryk’s first book is ‘International Criminal Tribunals and Domestic Accountability: In the Court’s Shadow’ (Oxford University Press). His work has featured in the Yale Journal of International Law, Leiden Journal of International Law, European Journal of International Law, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, and numerous edited books.

Dr. Andrii Nekoliak

Dr. Andrii Nekoliak is a MEMOCRACY Postdoctoral Researcher at the T.M.C. Asser Institute — University of Amsterdam (@ANekoliak). He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Tartu (Estonia), having defended a thesis on ‘Memory Laws’ and the Patterns of Collective Memory Regulation in Poland and Ukraine in 1989-2020: A Comparative Analysis (2022). In his research for the MEMOCRACY project, he will focus on the politics of memory in Ukraine and Russia.  Before joining the T.M.C. Asser Institute, Andrii worked as a junior researcher at the Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies at the University of Tartu. Andrii has published a book chapter on language politics in Ukraine in an edited volume with Palgrave McMillan. He also has a forthcoming article on the politics of Ukraine’s Constitutional Court in Review of Central and East European Law (Brill). Apart from research, Andrii contributes to Verfassungsblog regularly.

Dr. Paula Rhein-Fischer

Dr. Paula Rhein-Fischer is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Academy of European Human Rights Protection of the University of Cologne. In her research for the MEMOCRACY project, she focuses on the ban on genocide denials and the theoretical concepts of militant democracy, constitutional identity and populism. She defended her doctoral thesis in 2020 on factual mistakes relating to the exceptions of the use of force under UN Charter law in the Institute of International Peace and Security law of University of Cologne. She has been a Visiting Scholar at the Human Rights Institute of Columbia Law School. Paula studied German and French law at the Universities of Cologne and Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne (LL.B./Maîtrise). In 2021, she completed her German second State Exam after being a trainee lawyer, inter alia, at the European Commission (Unit for Rule of Law and Justice Policy), the law firm CMS Hasche Sigle (Dispute Resolution), the judiciary and the prosecution service. Apart from memory laws, Paula is interested in constitutional law, comparative law and general international law. She reports for the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts.

Dr. Dovilė Sagatienė

Since October 2022 dr. Dovilė Sagatienė is a postdoctoral researcher at MEMOCRACY project (Volkswagen Stiftung, 2021-2024), based at Centre for Military Studies in University of Copenhagen (Denmark). Her dissertation about Soviet courts of general jurisdiction in occupied Lithuania (2013) focused on Soviet judiciary problems, and her previous post-doc as a Fulbright Scholar at the Harriman Institute in Columbia University in 2019-2020 explored the Soviet repressions in Lithuania in the framework of the genocide concept. The recent publications addressed Soviet genocide debate on legal level (The Debate about Soviet Genocide in Lithuania in the Case Law of the European Court of Human RightsNationalities Papers, 2020, Deconstruction of Soviet Deportations in Lithuania in the Context of the Genocide ConventionInternational Criminal Law Review, 2021) as well as the transformation of memory regarding Soviet crimes in Lithuania, and more broadly in the Baltics and Eastern Europe, as an interlinked political and legal process (The Transformation of Lithuanian Memories of Soviet Crimes to Genocide Recognition, forthcoming in the International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2022).

Dr. Anna Wójcik

Dr. Anna Wójcik is a MEMOCRACY post-doc in the Polish team and assistant professor at the Institute of Legal Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where she defended P.h.D. on limits to individual’s rights in the context of historical policy evaluated from ECHR perspective. In her research, Anna focuses on the historical governance of memory, the rule of law, de-democratization and re-democratization, with a particular focus on Central Europe. Anna is Re:Constitution fellow at the Democracy Institute, Central European University and Hungarian Helsinki Committee (2022) and the German Marshall Fund of the United States Re:think CEE fellow (2021/2022). She has been a researcher at the Polish Academy of Sciences since 2016, in 2016-2019 in the EU-funded consortium “MELA. Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives”. Anna was visiting junior fellow at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in the Hague (2018). Since 2017, she co-authors Freedom House’s Nations in Transit reports on democracy in Poland. She co-founded projects monitoring the rule of law crisis, The Wiktor Osiatyński Archive (since 2017) and ruleoflaw.pl (since 2019). Anna also covers democracy and the rule of law for OKO.press, a public interest in-depth journalism portal.

Researchers and Assistants

Simon Mensing

Simon studied law at the University of Münster and Panthéon-Assas in Paris. In the meantime, he completed a program in the Anglo-American common law. After his studies, he held positions as a research assistant in the administration of the German Bundestag (Department for International Parliamentary Assemblies) and at a labor law firm. Since November 2021, he has been a research assistant and a Ph.D. candidate at the Academy for European Human Rights Protection of the University of Cologne.

Dr. Mirosław Sadowski

Mirosław Michał Sadowski is the MEMOCRACY research assistant in the Polish team. He is a Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) candidate at McGill University’s Faculty of Law, a Research assistant at the Institute of Legal Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (INP PAN), and a 2019 Master of Laws graduate of the University of Wrocław, Poland. His main interests lie in the intersections between law and memory, sociology of law, cultural heritage law and the law of Hong Kong and Macau SARs, but in his research he also explores international law and political science. His thesis, written under the supervision of prof. Helge Dedek, will focus on a comprehensive examination of the mechanisms controlling the relationship between law and memory. So far, Mr. MM Sadowski has participated with a paper in over thirty-five conferences, including CLC 2015 – 2018; 2021, SLSA 2016 – 2019; 2021, SLS 2020 – 2021, McGill’s GLSA 2017, 2019 – 2021, and published three book chapters, twelve articles and a conference report, with one book chapter and one article awaiting publication in 2022. In the 2020/21 academic year he held the function of VP Academic of the Graduate Law Students Association (GLSA) at the Faculty of Law, McGill University, serving as the Association’s President in the 2021/22 academic year. Mr. Sadowski speaks four languages – Polish, English, French and Portuguese – and is currently learning German and Hungarian. He is also a member of the British Socio-Legal Studies Association (SLSA), Society of Legal Scholars (SLS), Law and Society Association (LSA), Canadian Law and Society Association (ACDS/CLSA), and the Richard Wagner Society of Wrocław.

Wamika Sachdev

Wamika is a legal intern/trainee at the T.M.C Asser Institute in the Netherlands and the MEMOCRACY Project assistant for the Dutch Team. 

She holds an advanced LL.M. degree in Public International Law from Leiden University’s Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies and specializes in Peace, Justice, and Development. She has interned at several international civil society organizations where she worked toward protecting human rights, anti-discrimination, and promoting gender equality, and is a legal research associate for Gender and Earth laws at AELA (Australian Earth Laws Alliance)

Her thesis was on the topic of ‘The legitimacy of the United Nations as an International Institution Despite its Circumstances, Founders, War and Politics’. While assisting the MEMOCRACY project, she hopes to conduct research on Ukraine and Russia’s memory laws and assist in the creation of a policy brief. She also aims to creatively expand the scope of the project to cover memory laws and memory politics in Asia. 

Her main areas of interest are public international law, gender studies, human rights, humanitarian law, diplomacy, international relations, and an interdisciplinary approach to law that combines it with social sciences. 

Anastasiia Vorobiova

Research assistant at the Institute of Legal Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (INP PAN). Ms. Vorobiova holds an LLM degree in International Human Rights Law from Lund University (2021); LLM and BA from the National University Odesa Law Academy (2018 and 2016 respectively) and MA in English Language and Literature from the Odesa National I. I. Mechnikov University (2017).

In her LLM thesis, Ms. Vorobiova examined the ongoing militarization of education in occupied Crimea and its implications within the international humanitarian and human rights law frameworks. She is intended to further this research within the MEMOCRACY project and focus on the WWII memory aspect of such policies. Her research interests also include international criminal justice and accountability issues.

Ms. Vorobiova had previously assisted in collecting factual materials and conducting legal analysis for the Global Rights Compliance project “International Law and defining Russia’s involvement in Crimea and Donbas”. She also participated in the preparation of a thematic report for the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law cooperation with academic institutions of Belarus in teaching gender and law courses.

Ms. Vorobiova is a recipient of the Swedish Institute Scholarship for Global Professionals and alumni of the Swedish Institute Network for Future Global Leaders.

Memocracy

Memocracy

The Challenge of Populist Memory Politics for Europe:
Towards Effective Responses to Militant Legislation on the Past

Team

Principal investigators

Prof. Angelika Nußberger

Angelika Nußberger is a professor at Cologne University teaching international law and comparative constitutional law. From 2011 until 2019 she was Judge at the European Court of Human Rights elected on behalf of Germany, for three years between 2017 and 2019 its Vice-President. She is the German member of the Venice Commission and since 2021 its Vice-President, International Judge at the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the German constitutional law professors’ association. 

In her research she has been concentrating on the influence of European human rights jurisprudence on constitutional law, especially in Eastern Europe, on the contextuality of constitutional law, dialogue between courts and the questions of rule-of-law in international law. 

Dr. Uladzislau Belavusau

Dr. Uladzislau Belavusau is a Senior Researcher in European law at the T.M.C. Asser Institute – University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and currently leads the Dutch team of the MEMOCRACY project (2021-2024). Previously he was an Assistant Professor of EU law and human rights at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (2011-2015) and a Principal Investigator for the MELA project (2016-2019). He holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Florence, Italy) and an LLM from the Collège d’Europe (Bruges, Belgium). Dr Belavusau has held numerous visiting research fellowships, including at the University of California (Berkeley, USA), Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg, Germany), York University (Toronto, Canada), Tel Aviv University (Israel) and Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy). Likewise, he has guest-lectured at the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland), Masaryk University (Czech Republic), York University (Canada), IDC University Herzliya (Israel) and LUISS Guido Carli University in Rome (Italy) as well as several other institutions in and outside the Netherlands. He is the author of two monographs Governance of Sexual Rights in European Law (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming in 2023) and Freedom of Speech (Routledge, 2013), and co-editor of three books Constitutionalism Under Stress (Oxford University Press, 2020), EU Anti-Discrimination Law (Hart-Bloomsbury, 2018) and  Law and Memory (Cambridge University Press, 2017). His research and teaching cover various areas of EU (especially constitutional and anti-discrimination) law, comparative constitutional law, human rights and memory politics.

Dr. Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias

Dr. Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias is MEMOCRACY Principal Investigator in the Polish team. She is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and an expert in the fields of anti-discrimination law, freedom of speech, and memory laws. She is co-editor and co-author of Law and Memory: Towards Legal Governance of History (CUP, 2017) and Constitutionalism under Stress (OUP, 2020). She was Bohdan Winiarski Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre of the University of Cambridge and a Graduate Fellow at the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism, Yale University. Between 2016 and 2019 she was a Principal Investigator in the Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspective(MELA), an international research consortium sponsored by the Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA). Apart from her academic work, Dr. Gliszczyńska-Grabias is a co-head of the Public Interest Strategic Litigation Program at one of the global law firms.

Dr. Maria Mälksoo

Dr. Maria Mälksoo is MEMOCRACY Principal Investigator in the University of Copenhagen team. She is Professor of International Relations at the Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen. Her research foci are in memory politics and critical security studies. Dr. Mälksoo is the author of The Politics of Becoming European: A Study of Polish and Baltic Post-Cold War Security Imaginaries (Routledge, 2010); a co-author of Remembering Katyn (Polity, 2012); an editor of the JIRD Special Issue “Uses of ‘the East’ in International Studies: provincializing IR from Central and Eastern Europe” (2021) and the Handbook on the Politics of Memory (Edward Elgar, 2023) (see here for further publications). She has been a visiting research fellow at the Centre of International Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science (2015), and Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies (2012).

Maria Mälksoo received her Ph.D. in International Studies from the University of Cambridge (2008) and has previously worked at the University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies (2016-2021); the University of Tartu, Estonia (2010-2016); International Centre for Defence and Security, Tallinn (2007-2010); the Estonian Ministry of Defence, and the Office of the President of Estonia. Dr. Mälksoo was the Executive Secretary of the European International Studies Association (EISA) in 2018-2021, and served as the President of the Central and East European International Studies Association (CEEISA) (2019-2022). She is the incoming Associate Editor of the Review of International Studies, and an editorial board member of the European Journal of International Relations, Global Studies Quarterly and International Political Anthropology.

Postdoctoral researchers

Dr. Grażyna Baranowska

Dr. Grażyna Baranowska, MEMOCRACY post-doc in the Polish team, is a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Postdoctoral fellow at the Hertie School in Berlin (2021-2024), as well as an assistant professor at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences (since 2016). Previously, she was a PostDoctoral researcher in the EU-funded consortium “MELA. Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives” (2016-2019), as well as a policy advisor in a project on enforced disappearances at the German Institute for Human Rights (2019-2020). Her book “Rights of Families of Disappeared Persons” was published by Intersentia in 2021.

Dr. Patryk I. Labuda

Patryk I. Labuda (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Legal Studies) is a researcher in the Polish MEMOCRACY team. He was previously an Assistant Professor of (International) Criminal Law at the University of Amsterdam and a Swiss National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the New York University School of Law, the Fletcher School of Law of Diplomacy, and the University of Zurich. Patryk holds a PhD from the Geneva Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.

Patryk has 14 years of work and research experience in Africa, with a regional focus on the law, politics and history of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan and South Sudan. His current research focuses on global governance and relations between the ‘Global South’ and ‘Global East’, in particular Eastern Europe and Africa, in the wake of the 2022 invasion of Ukraine.

Patryk’s first book is ‘International Criminal Tribunals and Domestic Accountability: In the Court’s Shadow’ (Oxford University Press). His work has featured in the Yale Journal of International Law, Leiden Journal of International Law, European Journal of International Law, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, and numerous edited books.

Dr. Andrii Nekoliak

Dr. Andrii Nekoliak is a MEMOCRACY Postdoctoral Researcher at the T.M.C. Asser Institute — University of Amsterdam (@ANekoliak). He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Tartu (Estonia), having defended a thesis on ‘Memory Laws’ and the Patterns of Collective Memory Regulation in Poland and Ukraine in 1989-2020: A Comparative Analysis (2022). In his research for the MEMOCRACY project, he will focus on the politics of memory in Ukraine and Russia.  Before joining the T.M.C. Asser Institute, Andrii worked as a junior researcher at the Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies at the University of Tartu. Andrii has published a book chapter on language politics in Ukraine in an edited volume with Palgrave McMillan. He also has a forthcoming article on the politics of Ukraine’s Constitutional Court in Review of Central and East European Law (Brill). Apart from research, Andrii contributes to Verfassungsblog regularly.

Dr. Paula Rhein-Fischer

Dr. Paula Rhein-Fischer is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Academy of European Human Rights Protection of the University of Cologne. In her research for the MEMOCRACY project, she focuses on the ban on genocide denials and the theoretical concepts of militant democracy, constitutional identity and populism. She defended her doctoral thesis in 2020 on factual mistakes relating to the exceptions of the use of force under UN Charter law in the Institute of International Peace and Security law of University of Cologne. She has been a Visiting Scholar at the Human Rights Institute of Columbia Law School. Paula studied German and French law at the Universities of Cologne and Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne (LL.B./Maîtrise). In 2021, she completed her German second State Exam after being a trainee lawyer, inter alia, at the European Commission (Unit for Rule of Law and Justice Policy), the law firm CMS Hasche Sigle (Dispute Resolution), the judiciary and the prosecution service. Apart from memory laws, Paula is interested in constitutional law, comparative law and general international law. She reports for the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts.

Dr. Dovilė Sagatienė

Since October 2022 dr. Dovilė Sagatienė is a postdoctoral researcher at MEMOCRACY project (Volkswagen Stiftung, 2021-2024), based at Centre for Military Studies in University of Copenhagen (Denmark). Her dissertation about Soviet courts of general jurisdiction in occupied Lithuania (2013) focused on Soviet judiciary problems, and her previous post-doc as a Fulbright Scholar at the Harriman Institute in Columbia University in 2019-2020 explored the Soviet repressions in Lithuania in the framework of the genocide concept. The recent publications addressed Soviet genocide debate on legal level (The Debate about Soviet Genocide in Lithuania in the Case Law of the European Court of Human RightsNationalities Papers, 2020, Deconstruction of Soviet Deportations in Lithuania in the Context of the Genocide ConventionInternational Criminal Law Review, 2021) as well as the transformation of memory regarding Soviet crimes in Lithuania, and more broadly in the Baltics and Eastern Europe, as an interlinked political and legal process (The Transformation of Lithuanian Memories of Soviet Crimes to Genocide Recognition, forthcoming in the International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2022).

Dr. Anna Wójcik

Dr. Anna Wójcik is a MEMOCRACY post-doc in the Polish team and assistant professor at the Institute of Legal Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where she defended P.h.D. on limits to individual’s rights in the context of historical policy evaluated from ECHR perspective. In her research, Anna focuses on the historical governance of memory, the rule of law, de-democratization and re-democratization, with a particular focus on Central Europe. Anna is Re:Constitution fellow at the Democracy Institute, Central European University and Hungarian Helsinki Committee (2022) and the German Marshall Fund of the United States Re:think CEE fellow (2021/2022). She has been a researcher at the Polish Academy of Sciences since 2016, in 2016-2019 in the EU-funded consortium “MELA. Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives”. Anna was visiting junior fellow at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in the Hague (2018). Since 2017, she co-authors Freedom House’s Nations in Transit reports on democracy in Poland. She co-founded projects monitoring the rule of law crisis, The Wiktor Osiatyński Archive (since 2017) and ruleoflaw.pl (since 2019). Anna also covers democracy and the rule of law for OKO.press, a public interest in-depth journalism portal.

Researchers and Assistants

Simon Mensing

Simon studied law at the University of Münster and Panthéon-Assas in Paris. In the meantime, he completed a program in the Anglo-American common law. After his studies, he held positions as a research assistant in the administration of the German Bundestag (Department for International Parliamentary Assemblies) and at a labor law firm. Since November 2021, he has been a research assistant and a Ph.D. candidate at the Academy for European Human Rights Protection of the University of Cologne.

Dr. Mirosław Sadowski

Mirosław Michał Sadowski is the MEMOCRACY research assistant in the Polish team. He is a Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) candidate at McGill University’s Faculty of Law, a Research assistant at the Institute of Legal Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (INP PAN), and a 2019 Master of Laws graduate of the University of Wrocław, Poland. His main interests lie in the intersections between law and memory, sociology of law, cultural heritage law and the law of Hong Kong and Macau SARs, but in his research he also explores international law and political science. His thesis, written under the supervision of prof. Helge Dedek, will focus on a comprehensive examination of the mechanisms controlling the relationship between law and memory. So far, Mr. MM Sadowski has participated with a paper in over thirty-five conferences, including CLC 2015 – 2018; 2021, SLSA 2016 – 2019; 2021, SLS 2020 – 2021, McGill’s GLSA 2017, 2019 – 2021, and published three book chapters, twelve articles and a conference report, with one book chapter and one article awaiting publication in 2022. In the 2020/21 academic year he held the function of VP Academic of the Graduate Law Students Association (GLSA) at the Faculty of Law, McGill University, serving as the Association’s President in the 2021/22 academic year. Mr. Sadowski speaks four languages – Polish, English, French and Portuguese – and is currently learning German and Hungarian. He is also a member of the British Socio-Legal Studies Association (SLSA), Society of Legal Scholars (SLS), Law and Society Association (LSA), Canadian Law and Society Association (ACDS/CLSA), and the Richard Wagner Society of Wrocław.

Wamika Sachdev

Wamika is a legal intern/trainee at the T.M.C Asser Institute in the Netherlands and the MEMOCRACY Project assistant for the Dutch Team. 

She holds an advanced LL.M. degree in Public International Law from Leiden University’s Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies and specializes in Peace, Justice, and Development. She has interned at several international civil society organizations where she worked toward protecting human rights, anti-discrimination, and promoting gender equality, and is a legal research associate for Gender and Earth laws at AELA (Australian Earth Laws Alliance)

Her thesis was on the topic of ‘The legitimacy of the United Nations as an International Institution Despite its Circumstances, Founders, War and Politics’. While assisting the MEMOCRACY project, she hopes to conduct research on Ukraine and Russia’s memory laws and assist in the creation of a policy brief. She also aims to creatively expand the scope of the project to cover memory laws and memory politics in Asia. 

Her main areas of interest are public international law, gender studies, human rights, humanitarian law, diplomacy, international relations, and an interdisciplinary approach to law that combines it with social sciences. 

Anastasiia Vorobiova

Research assistant at the Institute of Legal Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (INP PAN). Ms. Vorobiova holds an LLM degree in International Human Rights Law from Lund University (2021); LLM and BA from the National University Odesa Law Academy (2018 and 2016 respectively) and MA in English Language and Literature from the Odesa National I. I. Mechnikov University (2017).

In her LLM thesis, Ms. Vorobiova examined the ongoing militarization of education in occupied Crimea and its implications within the international humanitarian and human rights law frameworks. She is intended to further this research within the MEMOCRACY project and focus on the WWII memory aspect of such policies. Her research interests also include international criminal justice and accountability issues.

Ms. Vorobiova had previously assisted in collecting factual materials and conducting legal analysis for the Global Rights Compliance project “International Law and defining Russia’s involvement in Crimea and Donbas”. She also participated in the preparation of a thematic report for the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law cooperation with academic institutions of Belarus in teaching gender and law courses.

Ms. Vorobiova is a recipient of the Swedish Institute Scholarship for Global Professionals and alumni of the Swedish Institute Network for Future Global Leaders.